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  • I. Was. Different.

    Juvenile behavior that it took a decade or so for me to grow out of when I was an adult.


    The Idealist - INFP

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

    Identification, the Law of

    See The Law of Identification

    identity politics

    The act of believing that disagreeing with someone on certain ideologies equates to them disapproving a particular identity such as one's race, sex, sexuality, religion, etc. rather than the ideology itself. Instead of focusing on the logical aspect of an idea or opinion, identity politics instead believes that a particular identity is opposing all people who belong to a particular identity.

    The term identity politics in common usage refers to a tendency of people sharing a particular racial, religious, ethnic, social, or cultural identity to form exclusive political alliances, instead of engaging in traditional broad-based party politics, or promote their particular interests without regard for interests of a larger political group. In academic usage, the term has been used to refer to a wide range of political activities and theoretical analysis rooted in experiences of injustice shared by different social groups. In this usage, identity politics typically aim to reclaim greater self-determination and political freedom for marginalized groups through understanding their distinctive nature and challenging externally imposed characterizations, instead of organizing solely around belief systems or party affiliations. Identity is used “as a tool to frame political claims, promote political ideologies, or stimulate and orientate social and political action, usually in a larger context of inequality or injustice and with the aim of asserting group distinctiveness and belonging and gaining power and recognition.”

    The term identity politics has been in use in various forms since the 1960s or 1970s, but has been applied with, at times, radically different meanings by different populations. It has gained currency with the emergence of social movements such as the women's movement, the civil rights movement in the U.S., the LGBTQ movement, as well as nationalist and postcolonial movements.

    The laden phrase “identity politics” has come to signify a wide range of political activity and theorizing founded in the shared experiences of injustice of members of certain social groups. Rather than organizing solely around belief systems, programmatic manifestos, or party affiliation, identity political formations typically aim to secure the political freedom of a specific constituency marginalized within its larger context. Members of that constituency assert or reclaim ways of understanding their distinctiveness that challenge dominant oppressive characterizations, with the goal of greater self-determination.
    Identity Politics from
    the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

    Neither liberals nor conservatives understand the weapon of identity politics, and the immense destruction it can cause. Identity politics does not simply parse different kinds of people. Identity politics is concerned with the relationship of transgression and innocence between different, purportedly monovalent, kinds of people. Identity politics is not just about who we are, it is about a moral stain or purity that defines who we are.

    ❝Igitur qui desiderat pacem, praeparet bellum.❞

    Therefore, whoever wishes for peace let him prepare for war.
    — Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus, De re militari
    Usually misquoted as “Si vis pacem, para bellum.” - If you want peace, prepare for war.



    Usually around 02February.This year's date.

    Traditional neopagan sabbat. Cross quarter day, Greater Sabbat, High Holiday, fire festival & seasonal gateway. Imbolc marks the beginning of spring and the midpoint between the winter solstice and the vernal equinox. Festival of light and gateway between the seasons.
    Imbolc is a Fire festival and aligned agriculturally with the first stirrings of the hope of growing light, slowly warming weather and fields that would at mid-summer’s point be lush with flower, fruit and animal life. Imbolc celebrates the new life that has yet to push through the frost-covered ground, yet remains as a strong image of the quickening potential. We revel in the excitement of spying a single shoot of greenery and the first signs of Spring even though snow may still cover the ground. The vitality we feel as the cold winds blow are sure signs that we are alive and vibrant. And this life and vibrancy holds the promise of returning to the warmth of home and interaction with friends and family.

    At the time of Imbolc we celebrate the calving season as new life emerges from mother’s womb. Milk flows freely for those young animals that will provide sustenance in the coming months ahead and we anticipate the healing that this new life will bring to the land as hungry mouths graze on lush green fields that will emerge in the months ahead. We celebrate with cheese, and milk and products that contain this protein rich elixir.

    We celebrate the gaining strength of the Goddess having given birth at the Solstice to the child of Light and now bathed in the fires of revitalization seen as she begins the transition into the Maiden of Ostara. This is the affirmation of the continued cycle of life and the transformative nature of Deity as source of inspiration for their much love children of the earth in all of our forms.

    This holiday is also known as Candlemas, or Brigid's (pronounced BREED) Day. One of the 4 Celtic "Fire Festivals. Commemorates the changing of the Goddess from the Crone to the Maiden. Celebrates the first signs of Spring. Also called "Imbolc" (the old Celtic name).

    This is the seasonal change where the first signs of spring and the return of the sun are noted, i.e. the first sprouting of leaves, the sprouting of the Crocus flowers etc. In other words, it is the festival commemorating the successful passing of winter and the beginning of the agricultural year. This Festival also marks the transition point of the threefold Goddess energies from those of Crone to Maiden.

    It is the day that we celebrate the passing of Winter and make way for Spring. It is the day we honour the rebirth of the Sun and we may visualize the baby sun nursing from the Goddess's breast. It is also a day of celebrating the Celtic Goddess Brigid. Brigid is the Goddess of Poetry, Healing, Smithcraft, and Midwifery. If you can make it with your hands, Brigid rules it. She is a triple Goddess, so we honour her in all her aspects. This is a time for communing with her, and tending the lighting of her sacred flame. At this time of year, Wiccans will light multiple candles, white for Brigid, for the god usually yellow or red, to remind us of the passing of winter and the entrance into spring, the time of the Sun. This is a good time for initiations, be they into covens or self-initiations.
    Imbolc from The White Goddess

    The name “Imbolc” or “Oimelc”, which is derived from Gaelic, means “ewe’s milk” after the lactating sheep that are feeding their first born lambs of the new season at this time of year.
    Imbolc from Witches Of The Craft

    The next Festival occurs on February 2nd, or the eve of February 1st. It is called Imbolc in the Druid tradition, or sometimes Oimelc. Although we would think of Imbolc as being in the midst of Winter, it represents in fact the first of a trio of Spring celebrations, since it is the time of the first appearance of the snowdrop, and of the melting of the snows and the clearing of the debris of Winter. It is a time when we sense the first glimmer of Spring, and when the lambs are born. In the Druid tradition it is a gentle, beautiful festival in which the Mother Goddess is honoured with eight candles rising out of the water at the centre of the ceremonial circle.

    The Goddess that ruled Samhuinn was the Cailleach, the Grey Hag, the Mountain Mother, the Dark Woman of Knowledge. But by Imbolc the Goddess has become Brighid, the Goddess of poets, healers and midwives.

    And so we often use Imbolc as a time for an Eisteddfod dedicated to poetry and song praising the Goddess in her many forms. The Christian development of this festival is Candlemas - the time of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple. For years successive Popes had tried to stop parades of lit candles in the streets of Rome at this time, until seeing that it was impossible to put a stop to this pagan custom, they suggested that everyone enter the churches so that the priests could bless the candles.
    The Eightfold Wheel of the Year & the Druid Festivals
    from The Order of Bards, Ovates & Druids

    Imbolc is an ancient festival, Celtic in origin, and considered one of the greater Wiccan sabbats. It is celebrated on the night of February 1st in the northern hemisphere.

    The primary purpose of Imbolc is to celebrate Spring's impending replacement of Winter. In this sense, Imbolc may be seen as a spiritual alternative to the secular celebration of New Year's Eve.

    At New Year's Eve, we often see the image of old, bearded Father Time replaced with a young baby. Father Time represents the old, outgoing year, and the baby celebrates the year just born. At Imbolc, we have similar imagery; an old crone represents the outgoing year, and turns things over to a young maiden.

    Fertility, of course, plays a part here. The frozen earth is incapable of growing things, just as the old crone has grown incapable of producing offspring. This barrenness is replaced by the warm return of Spring, making the earth once again fertile, symbolized by the fertile young maiden.
    Imbolc from World Spirituality

    See also
  • bonfire (fire festival),
  • borders,
  • Brigit’s Day,
  • Candlelaria,
  • Candlemas: The Light Returns Imbolc from The Witches Sabbats,
  • Disting,
  • fire festival,
  • Imbolc: Rituals, Recipes & Lore for Brigid's Day,
  • Imbolg,
  • Imbolgc Brigantia,
  • livestock (fire festival),
  • Lupercus,
  • Oimelc,
  • Sparkpoint,
  • Sparkpoint,
  • Sparkpoint,
  • Springtide,
  • The Witches’ Sabats
  • https://lexicon.neowayland.com/ii/#imbolc


    (Ten Principles of Burning Man)

    in vino veritas ❝In wine there is truth❞



    Sex forbidden by law or culture between people due to consanguinity (family ties).

    In almost every case, incest is not a good idea, especially between adults and kids.


    increscent ☽

    See waxing crescent Moon

    Indian boarding schools

    The U.S. and Canada treated their indigenous people shamefully to keep them dependent and “under control.” Under U.S. law, the 574 Federally reoognized tribes are literally “domestic dependent nations.” Historically the U.S. breaks treaties with the tribes to acquire land or mineral rights. Not so long ago, Utah tried to seize mineral rights from five tribes.

    While technically sovereign tribes, actually the tribes are managed For Their Own Good. Amerinds were finally “granted” citizenship in 1924. Individual Amerinds weren't always allowed to vote until 1965, despite the 15th Amendment being ratified in 1870.

    This is a repeating pattern. No matter how bad American “blacks” had it, Amerinds had it worse.

    There were many, many other injustices. The Indian Removal Act. The Indian Appropriations Act. The Dawes Act. The reservation system was specifically engineered relocate and assimilate Amerindians.

    Imagine having no control over your language, your beliefs, your hair, your clothing, or your person. Imagine being told that all that you were and all that your ancestors had been wasn't acceptable and wouldn't be allowed. Imagine this happening as a paternalistic government took your rights and the resources from your land. Sometimes even the water you needed and the land itself. Imagine being told that this was all For the Greater Good.

    Possibly subject to change. Later. And you don't get to decide. It will be decided for you by technocrats and politicos.

    White man speak with forked tongue indeed.

    But the worst offenders were the Indian boarding schools.
    All the Indian there is in the race should be dead. Kill the Indian in him and save the man.
    — Richard Henry Pratt, creator of the Carlisle Indian Industrial School
    The boarding schools deliberately “assimilated” & “Christianized” their students. Children were taken, their hair cut, assigned “birthdays,” given uniforms, given “Christian” names and weren't allowed to speak anything but English.

    Many tribes had tradtions about clothing and when hair should be cut. But all this was sacrificed for the greater good. This dehumanizing behavior was Official® and therefore could not be questioned. Even though if it had been applied to American Christians, these practices would be called torture. It came damn close to killing and trivilizing the Amerind cultures.
    "When the children came to school here they couldn't practice their religions. They couldn't speak their languages and they couldn't wear their traditional clothing. They couldn't even eat their traditional foods," Talahongva said.

    Drastic changes for Native American children like one little boy Talahongva showed me a picture of.

    "He's come to school in all his regalia, all his fine clothing that his mother, grandmother made. I'm sure the shells maybe he did something. They were handed down by his grandfather and that's all taken away from him," said Talahongva.

    Any signs of where they came from, gone. In its place, a uniform.

    "Their haircuts are basically the same. The little girls have the bobs. The little boys have those crew cuts," Talahongva said.

    It was a sacred piece of cultural identity for many tribes.

    "The only time you cut hair is when someone died. So, imagine being a little child coming to school, your hair is cut and everybody's hair is cut and you're wondering who died?"

    Reservations took a toll on the minds, economy, and health of the people who were forced onto them that directly led to increased rates of disease and alcoholism. The Indigenous people who lived there were dependent on the government. Such is a problem when one loses the ability to perform their traditional subsistence activities. According to History, the government enacted the Dawes Act of 1887 in an attempt to limit this dependency. The act granted 160 acres to each indigenous family for farming and would give citizenship to participants after 25 years. The land was Western land though, which made it extremely difficult to farm, and much of it was sold to the railroads and white settlers.

    The money from land sales was used to fund reservation schools, which in turn were used to force the assimilation of Native peoples into Western cultural ways. Indigenous children were required to cut their hair, speak English, and abandon their traditions. Any student who didn't show up to class would be visited by truancy officers.

    By the 1920s, attitudes towards American Indian education were changing. In 1926 the Meriam Report recommended that schools abandon the teaching of European-American cultural values and instead teach students skills they would need to be successful within and outside of the tribal communities. Schools started to discard the program of assimilation. In the 1930s, Phoenix Indian School discontinued the lower grades, which moved to on-reservation schools, and began to serve only students in grades 9-12. As attitudes about American Indian education changed and with the Johnson-O’Malley Act of 1934, more tribes started building schools and taking control of the educational needs of their students. This shift lead to a decline in enrollment and the Phoenix Indian School closed in 1990.
    Residential Indian Schools from the Arizona State Library
    We don't know exactly all that prompted the changes of the 1960s and 1970s. There are two things I think are overlooked. One was the opening of the interstate highway system. Another was the (admittedly flawed) Disneyland Indian Village. For the first time, Americans could see Amerinds and some of their culture and trradtions without making a special off-road trip. I think this helped Americans see "Indians" as people.

    There are still boarding schools to this day, although regional and much closer to the families. Technically they are tribal, but most are cooperative efforts between the tribe and the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs. They aren't nearly as bad as they used to be.

    That's why I was born on the Rez. Growing up with Diné and Hopi kids, I sometimes felt left out because I didn't speak the language. Over the years I've picked up a few phrases here and there. The sad and scary part is that some of those those kids I grew up with don't speak much more and have only the vaguest idea of their own cultural traditions. I suppose part of that is progress, but I have to wonder how different things would have been if the American government hadn't managed the tribes “for their own good.”
    See also
  • All for Nought from The Wild Hunt,
  • Amerind,
  • politics
  • https://lexicon.neowayland.com/ii/#indian-school

    inductive reasoning

    See reasoning - inductive

    inferior conjunction

    the instant when a planet passes between Earth and the Sun (Mercury or Venus)


    inferior golden rule

    See golden rule (inferior)

    Infinite Data, the Law of

    See The Law of Infinite Data

    Infinite Universes, the Law of

    See The Law of Infinite Universes

    INFJ - The Protector

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

    INFP - The Idealist

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types


    marked by an ignorance of mathematics and the scientific approach


    ❝It's better to inspire rather than require.❞
    to fill with an animating, quickening, or exalting influence

      1. to influence, move, or guide by divine or supernatural inspiration
      2. to exert an animating, enlivening, or exalting influence on
      3. to spur on : impel, motivate
      4. affect
      1. archaic to breathe or blow into or upon
      2. archaic to infuse (something, such as life) by breathing
      1. to communicate to an agent supernaturally
      2. to draw forth or bring out
    1. inhale
      1. bring about, occasion
      2. incite
    2. to spread (rumor) by indirect means or through the agency of another

    The Inspirer - ENFP

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

    the institution versus the mission

    See iron law of bureaucracy

    intelligence Systematic problem solving

    1. capacity for learning, reasoning, understanding, and similar forms of mental activity; aptitude in grasping truths, relationships, facts, meanings, etc.
    2. manifestation of a high mental capacity
    3. the faculty of understanding.
    4. knowledge of an event, circumstance, etc., received or imparted; news; information.
    5. the gathering or distribution of information, especially secret information.
    6. Government.
      1. information about an enemy or a potential enemy.
      2. the evaluated conclusions drawn from such information.
      3. an organization or agency engaged in gathering such information
    A poorly understood and frequently overcomplicated subject.

    Yes, a very broad definition of intelligence is systematic problem solving. An intelligence is a set of mental tools that can solve a problem. But human intelligence spans several domains (multiple intelligences) and at least three interconnected thought modes.

    For our purposes here, each intelligence domain includes it's own perception, manipulation, patterning, and symbols.

    Intelligence in one domain doesn't necessarily grant ability or skill in another. Being a marathon runner has only the most basic application to being a particle physicist. Music doesn't include orbital mechanics. A classical chef might not understand why she can't get a date. Think of intelligence domains like vehicle types. A sports car does a different job than a dump truck. An airplane doesn't work like a boat. A bicycle isn't a tractor.

    Thought modes are the "gears." Each mode involves a different approach and different parts of the brain. Each ascending mode is more complex and requires more creativity.


    intelligence domains

    See multiple intelligences

    ❝inter arma silent leges❞

    Usually translated as “in times of war, the law falls silent.”

    This phrase doesn't just dismiss the rule of law, it shatters it and scatters the pieces.

    If the rule of law gets sacrificed when it's inconvenient, then what is the point? Why have a rule of law at all?
    Many think it not only inevitable but entirely proper that liberty give way to security in times of national crisis that, at the extremes of military exigency, inter arma silent leges. Whatever the general merits of the view that war silences law or modulates its voice, that view has no place in the interpretation and application of a Constitution designed precisely to confront war and, in a manner that accords with democratic principles, to accommodate it.
    ➢ Justice Antonin Scalia,
    dissenting opinion in Hamdi v. Rumsfeld (2004)

    Inter arma enim silent lex is a Latin phrase meaning "In times of war, the law falls silent." Generally administrators usually try to suspend civilian rights during war time. For instance, President Lincoln requested for an opinion on the suspension of a basic right, to habeas corpus, during the Civil War and the court held that the president cannot suspend the privilege of the writ of habeas corpus, nor authorize a military officer to do it. At times, courts have upheld this maxim. Erosion of citizens' rights during World War II were upheld by the Supreme Court by holding that the application of curfews against members of a minority group were constitutional when the nation was at war with the country from which that group originated.



    1. stopping or ceasing for a time; alternately ceasing and beginning again
    2. alternately functioning and not functioning or alternately functioning properly and improperly
    3. (of streams, lakes, or springs) recurrent; showing water only part of the time
    Intermittency is why solar and wind power aren't practical primary energy sources. The wind doesn't always blow and the sun doesn't always shine.

    intersectionality ❝I'm oppressed and it's YOUR FAULT!❞

    Intersectionality holds that each individual is the expert when it comes to his or her own oppression.

    the complex, cumulative way in which the effects of multiple forms of discrimination (such as racism, sexism, and classism) combine, overlap, or intersect especially in the experiences of marginalized individuals or groups

    Sociologist Patricia Hill Collins developed and explained the concept of intersectionality in her groundbreaking book, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment, published in 1990. Today intersectionality is a mainstay concept of critical race studies, feminist studies, queer studies, the sociology of globalization, and a critical sociological approach, generally speaking. In addition to race, class, gender, sexuality, and nationality, many of today's sociologists also include categories like age, religion, culture, ethnicity, ability, body type, and even looks in their intersectional approach.
    Definition of Intersectionality from ThoughtCo.
    ❝Somewhere, somewhen we went from accepting gays and lesbians to celebrating their choice as superior to ours as part of victimhood politics. And now that is not enough for some, trans is supposed to be a better choice than gay or lesbian. I think it's the inevitable result of embracing intersectionality, there's always someone more “victimized” than you.❞
    Like all kafkatrapping, intersectionality depends on guilt. Don't accept it. Don't reject it. Act as if the accusation is so silly and undeserved it's not even worth discussing. They will repeat, and you still shouldn't pay any attention to the claims. Go on as if the accuser had said nothing of importance. Indeed, go on as if you are trying to keep them from embarrassing themselves further. You're doing them a favor if only they were rational/sober enough to know it.

    Take personal responsibility and apply Ro3 № 15 to yourself.

    INTJ - The Scientist

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

    INTP - The Thinker

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

    Invocation, the Law of

    See The Law of Invocation

    ❝Irish democracy❞ Quiet resistance and noncompliance

    Quiet, anonymous, and often complicitous, lawbreaking and disobedience may well be the historically preferred mode of political action for peasant and subaltern classes, for whom open defiance is too dangerous….One need not have an actual conspiracy to achieve the practical effects of a conspiracy. More regimes have been brought, piecemeal, to their knees by what was once called “Irish Democracy”—the silent, dogged resistance, withdrawal, and truculence of millions of ordinary people—than by revolutionary vanguards or rioting mobs.
    — James C. Scott, Two Cheers for Anarchism
    “Irish democracy” could produce one possible (though unlikely) result, reduction in government size and power.

    Libertarians love the idea, but the established political parties just want to replace the government with one that they control. For The Greater Good, of course. And only long enough to “fix” things.
    Removing the overt confrontations makes “Irish Democracy” much safer than any other form of rebellion. The State needs conspicuous, targetable rebels. It cannot use terror of its forces without someone to turn into an “example.” No conspicuous rebels means nothing for the State to crucify for the edification of the public. As we mathematical types like to say, quod erat demonstrandum.

    Think that through. What makes anyone, or any institution, conspicuous? One sufficient qualification is great size. The State loves bigness for that reason, among others. That’s why we have an economy dominated by a few thousand mega-corporations. It’s far easier to shackle a giant corporation than the ten thousand small businesses it replaced. The benighted thing can’t move quickly enough to get out from under the State’s crosshairs.

    Another sufficient qualification is noise. The angry, vociferous rebel is asking to be targeted by the State, whether he intends that or not. We may deem him noble for his outspokenness in the cause of freedom, but there’s no denying that he’s courting a huge risk. Should the State decide that he’s acquired enough of a following to be a genuine threat, that risk will be reified.

    The third sufficient qualification is disruption of an important aspect of the economic status quo. There are many things one can do that will send a tremor through the economy. Above a certain magnitude, such tremors threaten the self-seeking arrangements of people in power. When that happens, they will act against the disruptor.

    First, what do I mean by “massive noncompliance”? I personally do not wish to run afoul of law enforcement or the Internal Revenue Service, so I choose my battles wisely. Knowing, that law enforcement has not always played fairly (reference Ruby Ridge, Waco, Bundy Ranch, Robert LaVoy Finicum, and so many others). Neither has the IRS played fairly (reference Becky Gerritson, a founder of the Wetumpka Tea Party in Alabama, and Lois Lerner of the IRS, and so many more). Don’t get me started on “eminent domain” and “asset forfeiture” and the “Environmental Protection(not!) Agency”, etc. Many of our federal and state agencies have entirely too much power. The idea of “innocent until proven guilty”, “due process”, and even the “Bill of Rights” don’t seem to apply anymore. Or, they do apply, but only for certain people. For instance, if you are a Mexican cartel member drug running in California, and you get pulled over and arrested by the California Highway Patrol, don’t worry! The local District Attorney will get you released immediately so you can get back to business. Why do the Mexican cartels have favored status in California? I’m asking, for some friends.

    I will, of course, always, shoot in self-defense to protect myself, my property, and my family, but I’m not going looking for trouble from any of these entities. And yes, I realize how that may turn out – another topic for another day. This article is not calling for an “armed insurrection” as Congress and the Department of Justice(not!) like to refer to any American who owns guns and discusses how to restore the Republic. After listening to the FIB, oops I mean, FBI Director Christopher Wray testify before Congress, I find our situation humorous, sad, and insane, that we have reached this point. But we have, and here we are.

    iron law of bureaucracy

    Iron Law of Oligarchy

    Pournelle's Iron Law of Bureaucracy states that in any bureaucratic organization there will be two kinds of people: those who work to further the actual goals of the organization, and those who work for the organization itself. Examples in education would be teachers who work and sacrifice to teach children, vs. union representative who work to protect any teacher including the most incompetent. The Iron Law states that in all cases, the second type of person will always gain control of the organization, and will always write the rules under which the organization functions.

    You cannot make a man see something when his income depends on his not seeing it.
    — anonymous
    ❝When the institution trumps the mission, the mission fails.❞
    The iron law of oligarchy is a political theory, first developed by the German syndicalist sociologist Robert Michels in his 1911 book, Political Parties.

    The “iron law of oligarchy” states that all forms of organization, regardless of how democratic or autocratic they may be at the start, will eventually and inevitably develop oligarchic tendencies, thus making true democracy practically and theoretically impossible, especially in large groups and complex organizations. The relative structural fluidity in a small-scale democracy succumbs to “social viscosity” in a large-scale organization. According to the “iron law,” democracy and large-scale organization are incompatible.
    What is ‘Iron Law of Oligarchy’? from Preserve Articles
    ❝Briefly, because government does not have competition the "services" it provides are subject to the fast track of Michels (1911) iron law of oligarchy. Even Parkinson referred to it in a roundabout way when he pegged building a custom headquarters as the final death knell of a bureaucracy. When the institution places the mission first, things can work. But when the institution comes first, things fall apart. In the private sector, the biggest incentive to change and stay mission focused is competition. Government institutions are shielded from competition and usually continue until they fail catastrophically. But they have no incentive to "fix" things, indeed they may even lose funding and power if they do.❞
    According to Michels all organizations eventually come to be run by a "leadership class", who often function as paid administrators, executives, spokespersons or political strategists for the organization. Far from being "servants of the masses", Michels argues this "leadership class," rather than the organization's membership, will inevitably grow to dominate the organization's power structures. By controlling who has access to information, those in power can centralize their power successfully, often with little accountability, due to the apathy, indifference and non-participation most rank and file members have in relation to their organization's decision-making processes. Michels argues that democratic attempts to hold leadership positions accountable are prone to fail, since with power comes the ability to reward loyalty, the ability to control information about the organization, and the ability to control what procedures the organization follows when making decisions. All of these mechanisms can be used to strongly influence the outcome of any decisions made 'democratically' by members.

    Iron Rule

    ❝Don't do for others what they can do for themselves.❞


    IS or IS NOT

    See dualism


    The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) code created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, Dublin, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 by David Whitaker and Emery Koltay (who grew to be Director of the U.S. ISBN agency).

    The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108.[4] However, the 9-digit SBN code was used in the United Kingdom until 1974. An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.

    Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s.

    Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure; however, this can be rectified later.

    ISFJ - The Nurturer

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

    ISFP - The Artist

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types


    See thymos


    An International Standard Serial Number (ISSN) is a unique eight-digit number used to identify a periodical publication at a specific media type. It is internationally accepted as a fundamental identifier for distinguishing between identical serial titles and facilitating checking and ordering procedures, collection management, legal deposit, interlibrary loans etc.

    When a periodical is published, with the same content, in two or more different media, a different ISSN is assigned to each media type – in particular the print and electronic media types, named print ISSN (p-ISSN) and electronic ISSN (e-ISSN or eISSN).

    The ISSN system was first drafted as an ISO international standard in 1971 and published as ISO 3297 in 1975.[3] The ISO subcommittee TC 46/SC 9 is responsible for the standard. To assign a unique identifier to the serial as content (linking among the different media), ISSN-L must be used, as defined by ISO 3297:2007

    ISTP - The Mechanic

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

    ISTJ - The Duty Fulfiller

    from PersonalityPage.com, see also Myers-Briggs types

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