- a belief or doctrine that inherent differences among the various human racial groups determine cultural or individual achievement, usually involving the idea that one's own race is superior and has the right to dominate others or that a particular racial group is inferior to the others.
- a policy, system of government, etc., based upon or fostering such a doctrine; discrimination.
- hatred or intolerance of another race or other races.Another word made needlessly complex by poltical correctness. Prior to the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X, most Americans believed fighting racism meant pushing for equal treatment under the law. Afterwards, some redefined fighting racism as government enforced special privileges to designated minorities. If you didn't actively support preferential treatment and extra oh-so-carefully defined privileges for the designated victim of the week, you were racist. And just like that, Republicans became “racist” because they were not clamoring for extra privileges for “blacks.” That was also the birth of American politics of victimhood, but that is another story. To sell these ideas, progressive “opinion makers” started using socio-economic background to shield selected minorities from criticism and the consequences of their individual action. It's no wonder that many who embraced their victim designation turned out childish. They never had to accept responsibility. That's how Democrats got to call Republicans racist. Republicans, whose party was founded to limit slavery. Republicans, whose first president was Lincoln. Republicans, who were behind practically every major civil rights law up until the 1970s. Republicans don't like victimhood politics and libertarians don't trust politics, period. We agree that equal treatment under the law is a Good Thing™, but we'd never support special treatment because that undermines equal treatment. Somehow in the progressive playbook, that has come to mean racism. As for racist Christians, historically both British and American Christianity have always had internal divisions over slavery and racism. Don't forget that it was certain Christians who ended the international slave trade in the name of their faith and morality. I was fortunate enough to be born among the Diné. That certainly shaped my view. It's simpler when I say there is one race, and it's human.❝Race only matters to racists.❞— Kent McManigalhttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#racism
rainwater harvesting❝Rainwater harvesting is the simple process or technology used to conserve Rainwater by collecting, storing, conveying and purifying of Rainwater that runs off from rooftops, parks, roads, open grounds, etc. for later use.❞
➢ Rainwater Harvesting from Byju's
✧❝Rainwater harvesting is an innovative alternative water supply approach anyone can use. Rainwater harvesting captures, diverts, and stores rainwater for later use. Implementing rainwater harvesting is beneficial because it reduces demand on existing water supply, and reduces run-off, erosion, and contamination of surface water. Rainwater can be used for nearly any purpose that requires water. These include landscape use, stormwater control, wildlife and livestock watering, in-home use, and fire protection.❞
➢ Rainwater Basics from Texas A&M Agriculature Extension
✧❝Using rainwater collected in rain barrels is a good idea for many reasons. It's relatively pure and soft, making it good for nondrinking uses; and because it isn't treated with chemicals like tap water, it's better for your plants. Water usage is restricted in times of drought, but you'll have more freedom for things like washing your car if you collect rainwater. Using rainwater as a supplement will help reduce utility bills and reduce the number of groundwater resources that are drained. In addition, it will leave more water -- that you might otherwise be taking from the tap -- for your local ecology, to help sustain wildlife in the lakes and rivers. When rainwater runoff gets polluted from things like antifreeze and oil on the roadways, it then continues flowing into creeks and streams, polluting them. If you catch some of this rainwater before it gets tainted, you'll be preventing some of this pollution.❞
➢ Are rain barrels effective? from How Stuff WorksRainwater harvesting makes sense to me. But what can I say? I'm a pagan born and raised in the desert. Exccept for drinking water and possibly bathing, rainwater can be used for most of our water needs. Using rainwater reduces the demand on our industrial water systems. It strikes me that using rainwater is spiritual. I saw a video where a man used rainwater for all his needs and then greywater from his washer to water a mulberrry tree.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#rainwater
Raspberry Pi❝The Raspberry Pi is a low cost, credit-card sized computer that plugs into a computer monitor or TV, and uses a standard keyboard and mouse. It is a capable little device that enables people of all ages to explore computing, and to learn how to program in languages like Scratch and Python. It’s capable of doing everything you’d expect a desktop computer to do, from browsing the internet and playing high-definition video, to making spreadsheets, word-processing, and playing games. What’s more, the Raspberry Pi has the ability to interact with the outside world, and has been used in a wide array of digital maker projects, from music machines and parent detectors to weather stations and tweeting birdhouses with infra-red cameras. We want to see the Raspberry Pi being used by kids all over the world to learn to program and understand how computers work..❞➢ What is a Raspberry Pi? from the Raspberry Pi Foundation
✧❝The Raspberry Pi debuted in February 2012. The group behind the computer's development - the Raspberry Pi Foundation - started the project to make computing fun for students, while also creating interest in how computers work at a basic level. Unlike using an encased computer from a manufacturer, the Raspberry Pi shows the essential guts behind the plastic. Even the software, by virtue of being open-source, offers an opportunity for students to explore the underlying code - if they wish. The Raspberry Pi is believed to be an ideal learning tool, in that it is cheap to make, easy to replace and needs only a keyboard and a TV to run. These same strengths also make it an ideal product to jumpstart computing in the developing world. ❞➢ Raspberry Pi from technopediaThis is one of those gadgets that is changing the world. Yes, it's a great teaching computer. But it also teaches people to make. It's very easy to set up to run headless (without keyboad, mouse, or keyboard) on a WiFi network. With a little more effort, you can set up a Raspberry Pi on an ethernet connection to your router or switch and without WiFi. That makes it ideal for a ad blocker. You don't need a high end computer to automate your home or workplace. Computers like the Raspberry Pi are cheap enough that you can run them headless for most things and use your regular computer to work and create. In this day and age where ever-growing corporations want your data without your consent, you need dirt cheap solutions that you control to keep your data out of their hands. Not every computing task needs expensive front line computers that constantly tell you what's happening. I just bought my first Raspberry Pi. Granted, it's not as easy to configure as a commericial product. But I've already set it up to be an ad-blocker for my home network. I am setting it up to be a server for a couple of Dymo label printers. And I plan to set it up to be a scan server as well. Yes, these are things that can be easily handled by my "desktop" computer. But I don't want printers and scanners living on my desk. I want them accessable, but they are not part of my everyday work flow. I don't want to drag my laptop from my comfortable chair to where the gadgets are.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#raspberry-pi
ravenCorvus corax & Corvus brachyrhynchosRaven bridges the worlds. He’s not about what you expect, he’s about showing you what is. Raven is a spirit ally, one of my “totems” that I honor. Arizona ravens are mostly Corvus corax. Ravens are about three to four times as big as a common crow. Raven feathers are shiny black with blue or purple highlights. The bill of the raven is stronger and more curved than a crow bill. Raven wings make a swishing sound. Raven wings are pointed and their tails are longer and wedge shaped. My MacBook Air is named McFiach.❝Most mornings I share breakfast berries with a raven. I talk to him, but he doesn't think much about human stuff. Now sunrises, he and I agree on. Not so much on sunsets, that's when he is off doing his own thing.❞❝From a distance, it can be hard to tell the difference between the two corvids, but if you see a crow in Arizona, and think, "Man, that's the biggest crow I've ever seen," it's quite likely you're looking at a raven. And he's probably looking at you. The birds' opportunistic, calculating nature is displayed, in an unscientific sense, in a keen bright eye that misses nothing. Folklore abounds with tales of amazing feats of observation and problem solving among ravens, and biologists have begun demonstrating the birds' impressive intellectual capabilities in lab settings in recent years. Some evidence even suggests that ravens possess a sense of fun and an ability to engage in play. Their aerial stunts, including rolls, loops, and even sustained upside-down flying, support that theory.❞➢ In Praise of the Arizona Raven from Gateway To Sedona
✧❝The scientific name for ravens, crows and their relatives is Corvidae. There are over 120 species and they include ravens, crows, rooks, choughs, jackdaws, and magpies. In Celtic mythology the Raven features in many legends. This large bird feeding as it does on carrion with its black plumage and disturbing deep hoarse croak is often viewed with some foreboding for it can be seen as an omen of death. It can also be associated as a source of power, straddling as it does the worlds of the living and the dead therefore often depicted as messenger between the two. Ravens hovering over the scenes of battle, ready to swoop down on the bodies of the fallen must have been a fearsome sight to Celtic warriors. Little wonder then that they could be seen as having the power of gods.❞➢ Ravens in Celtic and Norse Mythology from Transceltic
✧❝In Norse mythology, Huginn (from Old Norse "thought") and Muninn (Old Norse "memory" or "mind") are a pair of ravens that fly all over the world, Midgard, and bring information to the god Odin. Huginn and Muninn are attested in the Poetic Edda, compiled in the 13th century from earlier traditional sources: the Prose Edda and Heimskringla, written in the 13th century by Snorri Sturluson; in the Third Grammatical Treatise, compiled in the 13th century by Óláfr Þórðarson; and in the poetry of skalds. The names of the ravens are sometimes modernly anglicized as Hugin and Munin.❞
reasoning - abductive❝Abductive reasoning (also known as abduction, abductive inference or retroduction) is a type of logical inference that follows through from observation to a theory. Ideally this process will seek the simplest and most straight forward explanation. In abductive reasoning, unlike deductive reasoning, the premises do not automatically guarantee the conclusion. Abductive reasoning can be understood as "inference to the best explanation." However, this type of reasoning can lead to erroneous conclusions.❞
✧❝Abductive reasoning (also called abduction, abductive inference, or retroduction) is a form of logical inference formulated and advanced by American philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce beginning in the last third of the 19th century. It starts with an observation or set of observations and then seeks the simplest and most likely conclusion from the observations. This process, unlike deductive reasoning, yields a plausible conclusion but does not positively verify it. Abductive conclusions are thus qualified as having a remnant of uncertainty or doubt, which is expressed in retreat terms such as "best available" or "most likely". One can understand abductive reasoning as inference to the best explanation, although not all usages of the terms abduction and ?em>inference to the best explanation are exactly equivalent. In the 1990s, as computing power grew, the fields of law, computer science, and artificial intelligence research spurred renewed interest in the subject of abduction. Diagnostic expert systems frequently employ abduction.❞https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#abductive
reasoning - deductive❝Deductive reasoning, or deductive logic, is a type of argument used in both academia and everyday life. Also known as deduction, the process involves following one or more factual statements (i.e. premises) through to their logical conclusion. In a deductive argument, if all the premises are true, and the terms correctly applied, then it holds that the conclusion will also be true. This is alternatively referred to as “top-down” logic because it usually starts with a general statement and ends with a narrower, specific conclusion. The general principles of deductive reasoning date back to the Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle. Deductive reasoning is also at the heart of mathematics and computer programming.❞
✧❝Deductive reasoning is a type of deduction used in science and in life. It is when you take two true statements, or premises, to form a conclusion. For example, A is equal to B. B is also equal to C. Given those two statements, you can conclude A is equal to C using deductive reasoning.❞
✧❝Deductive reasoning is the process of drawing a conclusion based on premises that are generally assumed to be true. Also called "deductive logic," this act uses a logical premise to reach a logical conclusion. Deductive reasoning is often referred to as "top-down reasoning." If something is assumed to be true and another thing relates to the first assumption, then the original truth must also hold true for the second thing.❞https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#deductive
reasoning - inductive❝Inductive reasoning is a logical thinking process in which multiple premises that are believed to be true are combined to draw a conclusion. It is a process that works in the opposite direction to deductive reasoning. Inductive reasoning makes broad generalizations from specific observations, while deductive reasoning searches for specific information to prove the validity of broad concepts which are found in theory.❞
✧❝Inductive reasoning, or inductive logic, is a type of reasoning that involves drawing a general conclusion from a set of specific observations. Some people think of inductive reasoning as “bottom-up” logic, because it involves widening specific premises out into broader generalizations.❞https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#inductive
RedmarkAutumnal equinox.A WebTree solar festival & quarter day marking the vernal equinox and the middle of autumn. A time of sacrifice and renewal. Redmark lasts from sunrise on the day before the equinox to sunrise the day after (traditional three days). The Summerlord is defeated (but not killed) in ritual battle by his weird the Winterlord, beginning his diminishing and journey to the Gates of Death.See also
Harvest Home, Mabon, Mabon, What's in a name?https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#redmark
Red Queen hypothesis❝The “Red Queen” hypothesis in evolution is related to the coevolution of species. It states that species must continuously adapt and evolve to pass on genes to the next generation and also to keep from going extinct when other species within a symbiotic relationship are evolving. First proposed in 1973 by Leigh Van Valen, this part of the hypothesis is especially important in a predator-prey relationship or a parasitic relationship.❞➢ What Is the Red Queen Hypothesis? from ThoughtCo.
✧❝Predator/prey relationships are not the only factors in the Red Queen Hypothesis. If many species are competing for the same resources, mutations are sometimes needed to prevent a species from being out-competed. This is possibly one of the reasons why sexual reproduction occurs in higher species. If no random mixing occurred, then a bacteria or parasite may quickly evolve into a lethal form which would wipe out a species. Sexual reproduction means that in a large population, there would be enough individuals with resistance to breed, pass the trait on and continue the species. In a strange way, this benefits both host and parasite because, if a parasite or bacteria was so effective that it killed the host species, then it too is guaranteed extinction. This process of sexual selection may explain why the vast majority of genes in vertebrates are dormant and do nothing (often called ‘junk DNA’) as they are preserving possible mutations that might suddenly be needed in the future if the environment or parasite pressure changes.❞➢ Red Queen Hypothesis from Explorable
✧❝The Red Queen Hypothesis in evolutionary biology states that to survive an evolving system, one must co-evolve with the best traits to survive that system. Taken from Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, the Red Queen tells Alice as they run a race against each other, "It takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!" As the economy declines and evolves, your role as the entrepreneur is to develop survival skills to keep your business in the running. That means you must do double the work your competitors are doing and take more initiative to keep yourself on top. Whether this means revamping your marketing, getting a business coach or scaling back your budget, what you do in these times is a test to your true viability. Remember, you're competing with a lot of other companies to fill those consumer niches. When people's jobs and money are at stake, you're likely to see more sabotage and selfishness for people and companies vying for the top spot.❞➢ The Red Queen Hypothesis from Entrepreneur See also
American chestnut, first law of ecology, First Truth, Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found Therehttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#red-queen
regenerative agriculture❝Regenerative farming is a philosophy based on common principles, not a specific set of practices. These regenerative principles include re-establishing relationships between people and land, building soil health, reducing or eliminating the use of harmful chemicals, growing diverse crops, holistic and humane livestock management, innovative and efficient use of resources, and equitable labor practices. Regenerative agriculture is not new; Indigenous cultures farmed in harmony with nature centuries ago. Today, regenerative farmers seek to heal the land from degradation and grow healthy food in a way that does not exploit people, animals, and the land.❞➢ Regenerative Agriculture from NRDC
✧❝For decades, the modern food and agriculture industry has mostly been operating through monocultures, large farmlands planted with only one crop. The priority has been placed on producing a high yield or harvest without regard to the health of the resources required to produce it. With growing demands for ag businesses big and small to address climate change and think holistically about the ecosystems and communities they serve, many more eco-friendly farming practices such as regenerative agriculture have begun growing in popularity.
As a concept, regenerative agriculture aims to be more all-encompassing than organic or other types of agricultural practices, but is not currently defined by a certain criteria or collection of practices. A study published in Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems in 2020 looked at how the term “regenerative agriculture” was used in 229 scholarly articles and found that while there was not a consistent definition across the board. However, there were five main principles agreed upon the most: improving soil health, increasing biodiversity, aiding in carbon sequestration, incorporating humane treatment of livestock and farmworkers and improving the overall larger ecosystem as a whole. The National Resources Defense Council has done an excellent job detailing the reasoning and rationale behind the principles, as well as the passion regenerative agriculture inspires in producers and communities. Even without a formal definition or consensus as to how to define or emphasize certain aspects of regenerative agriculture, many agree that certain methods and practices can be seen as “regenerative” due to how they prioritize the care of our ecosystem❞➢ What Is Regenerative Agriculture? from Substainable Americahttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#regenerative-agriculture
regime mediaAny media that celebrates government actions, reveres the words/plans of the current ruling party, suppresses any criticism of current majority party office holders, and exaggerates or fabricates “news items” that show opposition or dissent in a negative light. A form of thrall media.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#regime-media
❝Regulatory capture is an economic theory that says regulatory agencies may come to be dominated by the industries or interests they are charged with regulating. The result is that the agency, which is charged with acting in the public's interest, instead acts in ways that benefit the industry it is supposed to be regulating. Regulatory capture, also known as the economic theory of regulation, became known in the 1970s due the late George Stigler, a Nobel laureate economist at the University of Chicago, who first defined the term. Stigler noted that regulated industries maintain a keen and immediate interest in influencing regulators, whereas ordinary citizens are less motivated. Thus even though the rules in question, such as pollution standards, often affect citizens in the aggregate, individuals are unlikely to lobby regulators to the degree of regulated industries. Moreover, regulated industries devote large budgets to influencing regulators at federal, state and local levels. By contrast, individual citizens spend only limited resources to advocate for their rights. Even well-organized groups in favor of tougher regulations, such as the Sierra Club a well-known environmental advocate, garner only modest resources relative to industry interests.❞➢ Regulatory Capture from Investopedia
✧❝Regulatory capture is a form of government failure. Government failure, also known as non-market failure, is imperfection in government performance. Regulatory capture is a form of rent-seeking – trying to get a larger slice of a market’s total wealth without creating any additional wealth for that market. When regulatory capture exists, the interest of political groups or companies become more important than those of the public, which leads to a net loss to society.❞➢ Regulatory Capture – Definition And Meaning
from Market Business News
✧❝Regulatory capture: putting the “crony” in crony capitalism for as long as regulations and politics have existed.❞➢ What is regulatory capture? from Knowledge ProblemSee also
corporatism, economics, politcshttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#regulatory-capture
reinforcement learning❝Reinforcement learning is an important type of Machine Learning where an agent learn how to behave in a environment by performing actions and seeing the results. In recent years, we’ve seen a lot of improvements in this fascinating area of research. Examples include DeepMind and the Deep Q learning architecture in 2014, beating the champion of the game of Go with AlphaGo in 2016, OpenAI and the PPO in 2017, amongst others.❞➢ An introduction to Reinforcement Learning
✧❝Reinforcement learning copies a very simple principle from nature. The psychologist Edward Thorndike documented it more than 100 years ago. Thorndike placed cats inside boxes from which they could escape only by pressing a lever. After a considerable amount of pacing around and meowing, the animals would eventually step on the lever by chance. After they learned to associate this behavior with the desired outcome, they eventually escaped with increasing speed. Some of the very earliest artificial-intelligence researchers believed that this process might be usefully reproduced in machines. In 1951, Marvin Minsky, a student at Harvard who would become one of the founding fathers of AI as a professor at MIT, built a machine that used a simple form of reinforcement learning to mimic a rat learning to navigate a maze. Minsky’s Stochastic Neural Analogy Reinforcement Computer, or SNARC, consisted of dozens of tubes, motors, and clutches that simulated the behavior of 40 neurons and synapses. As a simulated rat made its way out of a virtual maze, the strength of some synaptic connections would increase, thereby reinforcing the underlying behavior.❞➢ 10 Breakthrough Technologies - Reinforcement Learning
from MIT Technology Review
✧❝A third alternative, much closer to supervised than unsupervised learning, is reinforcement learning: the learner receives feedback about the appropriateness of its response. For correct responses, reinforcement learning resembles supervised learning: in both cases, the learner receives information that what it did is appropriate. However, the two forms of learning differ significantly for errors, situations in which the learner's behavior is in some way inappropriate. In these situations, supervised learning lets the learner know exactly what it should have done, whereas reinforcement learning only says that the behavior was inappropriate and (usually) how inappropriate it was. In nature, reinforcement learning is much more common than supervised learning. It is rare that a teacher available who can say what should have been done when a mistake is made, and even when such a teacher is available, it is rare that the learner can interpret the teacher's feedback provides direct information about what needs to be changed in the learner, that is, features of the learner's nervous system. Consider an animal that has to learn some aspects of how to walk. It tries out various movements. Some work -- it moves forward -- and it is rewarded. Others fail -- it stumbles or falls down -- and it is punished with pain.❞➢ Introduction to Reinforcement Learning from Indiana University Bloomingtonhttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#reinforcement-learning
religionA shared, organized system for people interacting with the Divine. Faith is the juice that makes the system work.
- a set of beliefs concerning the cause, nature, and purpose of the universe, especially when considered as the creation of a superhuman agency or agencies, usually involving devotional and ritual observances, and often containing a moral code governing the conduct of human affairs
- a specific fundamental set of beliefs and practices generally agreed upon by a number of persons or sects
- the body of persons adhering to a particular set of beliefs and practices
✧❝You want your religion taken seriously? Stop treating it like fandom.❞— Cassie Beyer, To Know, Will and Dare
- The body of institutionalized expressions of sacred beliefs, observances and practices found within a given cultural context.
- A magical system combined with a philosophical and ethical system, usually oriented towards “supernatural” beings.
- A psychic structure composed of the shared beliefs, experiences and related habits of all members (not just the theologians) of any group calling itself “a religion.”— Isaac Bonewits, “glossary - Religion”, Real Magic
☞ www.neopagan.net❝Religion cannot be allowed the coercive power of government. Government cannot be allowed the moral justification of religion.❞❝I could give you a song and dance about perspective, I could tell you that assumptions shape expectations, I could whisper about the wonder in a clear night under a full Moon, but those aren't the answers you would accept. That doesn't stop them from being answers and workable answers at that. It just means you don't think my answers would work for you. Just as I think your answers won't work for me. But as long as you think that there has to be ONE answer, you see that as opposition at best. At worst you see that as an attack on everything you hold dear. I have an animus against imposed religion because I consider faith to be between the individual and the Divine. No, I don't specify which gods I believe in. Their Names are not something to be casually shared. Nor is that unusual. My faith doesn't have pages and pages of detailed precepts. There are a few simple principles that I live day to day. There are ideas I consider sacred that you do not. I won't argue whose religion is real because that is counterproductive. Should I argue your scripture with you when I have none that I follow? Not unless you insist that your scripture controls my actions and words. I believe that we are both Manifestations of the Divine and the universe trying to understand itself. I believe that there are natural rhythms that we ignore only at the cost of making ourselves less human. I believe we should not be shamed by our bodies and that sex is part of who we are. I believe that the purpose of life is to leave the World a little better than how we found it. Is this the “Neo standard?” Yes. Is it significantly better than your beliefs? Well, that is a question, isn't it? I think the only standard that matters is how we touch the lives of others. It requires judgement. It means that sometimes I will disagree with the people around me. It means the worthy answers are never the easy ones. Do you want me to cite chapter and verse? I can't. Do I have an answer for everything? No. Will I submit to your perspective? No. Do my answers work? Yes. But that is not your question. You want to know if my answers will work for anyone but me because you believe your answers work for everyone. When I point out that your answers won't work for everyone, that makes you feel defensive. Does that make my answers better? No. You are distressed because it undermines one of your central assumptions. Please note that your chosen definition uses the context of religion (one thing) to define another thing (faith).❞Religion is not social. When a religion has coercive powers enforced by the state (or community), it seldom works out well. Religion can't be allowed the coercive power of government and government can't be allowed the moral justification of religion. And there's always the question of which religion is going to be "in charge." Do I think that children need strong male and female influences in their lives? Yes. But they need that balanced with choice and responsibility. If their morals are ethics aren't their choice and responsibility, then it's not ethical. Morality cannot be imposed, it can only be chosen or it's just slavery under another name. Simple parity test. Would you and yours be willing to live under the rules of another religion? Even one that you desperately disagreed with? Then why would they be willing to live under yours?❝Later, a professor of Eastern religion would explain to me that Asian religious renunciates wore red, orange, or saffron robes to warn people that they were “hot” in a spiritual sense, but also with an echo of the slang term for sexy. Yeah, religion — the “juice,” not the social organizations — can be sexy. Hindu gurus are notorious for sexual scandals, as are some Zen teachers, Protestant ministers, Catholic priests . . . you could go on. Morality ought to be filed under Philosophy, not Religion.❞➢ How to Ruin the Mysteries, or Religion is not Moral by Chas. S. CliftonSee also
name, name - titlehttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#religion
reluctant advocateSomeone who supports the right without advocating the behavior. For me, it started with guns. I called myself a reluctant gun advocate. Not because I own guns (I don't), not because I like guns (I detest them), but because I thought people have a right to defend themselves. It follows for any right. It's not a right unless the other guy has it too. If I want a right or if I might want a right, I have to defend everyone's rights. I'm not a gun owner, but people have the right to own guns. I'm not homosexual, but if I want sexual rights than others have the right to choose for themselves. I'm not a woman, but I think women deserve equal opportunity and equal pay for equal work. I may not agree with the behavior, but as long it doesn't harm others, I've no reason to deny another their choice.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#reluctant
Remnant, the❝The Remnant has always existed, since the beginning of man and it survives today. It is not possessed with extraordinary intelligence, wealth or power. Those that comprise it are just ordinary human beings, average by—and—large and you will never recognize them for what they are when you meet them, see them or hear them. They are the builders, re—builders and redeemers of humanity. They are the ones who sustain and regenerate society — and above all else — they persevere. You can guess who they are or might have been but you will never know with any certainty. They are friends of liberty though, that much I know.
The Remnant includes people of all colors, political parties, religious beliefs, gender, languages, cultures and ages. It is not just one thought process, other than truth, and while I cannot tell you who they are, I know who they are not. They are most definitely not Communists, Socialists, Fascists, self—serving elitists, nor anyone who believes in the power of the State. Simply put, the Remnant believes in good, limited government everywhere. And while tyrants, despots and dictators frequently appear from time to time, aided and abetted by those that serve them, and social experiments at the expense of liberty come and go, the Remnant is always there, ready to rebuild and try once more.❞➢ The Remnant from American ThinkerSee also
Old Breed, honor, honor, Isaiah's Job, temporary copy of You Are Not Alone, With the Old Breed: At Peleliu and Okinawahttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/remnant
❝Renewable energy is energy from sources that are naturally replenishing but flow-limited; renewable resources are virtually inexhaustible in duration but limited in the amount of energy that is available per unit of time.❞➢ Renewable energy explained
from U.S. Energy Information Administration
✧❝Solar Panels Don’t Work At Night.❞
Here's what you won't be told about renewable energy. A reliable energy grid means that all generators must produce the same current output, no matter what the demand at any given time. If the current output changes, lights flicker, circuits blow, and you can expect massive electrical interference proportionate to the size of the grid. Renewable energy as it exists today can't provide a constant, on demand flow of energy day or night. Even when there is energy from renewable sources, it flucates. The sun does not always shine, especially at night. Nor does the wind always blow. And when the sun does shine and the wind does blow, it doesn't do it uniformly. Renewable power isn't dependable enough as a primary source, it will always be supplimental to sources that can adjust quickly to changing demand. Energy density from renwable sources is low. Both solar and wind require massive amounts of land just to house facilities. These facilities require huge amounts of material, everything from cabling to support members. Right now there is no affordable way to provide renewable energy on a large scale. Government subsidies suppress competiton. As long as government is providing some of the money and preferential treatment, renewable energy doesn't have to compete. That insulates the industry from the need to make pragmatic and cheap solutions. Manufacturing costs and the environmental impact are almost never factored in. Just making large windmills or solar cells requires intense manufactoring. Composite windmill blades can't be easily repaired, remade, or repurposed. Solar panels have some of the same issues. Wind farms attract and kill birds, especially preditory birds. Solar reflectors can fry birds, especially if the sun is used to produce steam or molten salt. The service life varies depending on local conditions. Ten to thirty years is a reasonable estimate. At present, battery technology can't keep up with the demands. Electricy can't be easily stored, especially for vehicles. Cars have a limited range. There is no battery that can power even a small plane. Even a small delievery truck would soon exhaust a battery. If reneable energy were profitable and cost effective, it would dominate the market. As it is, less than 4% of American energy comes from renewable sources. This despite a fifty year effort by government at all levels. For comparison, during the same period, we went from mainframe computers to smartphones and smart watches without government incentives.See also
Can-do Petroleum vs. Can’t Do Renewables (Part I), Can-do Petroleum vs. Can’t Do Renewables (Part II), fourth law of ecology, scientism, Shockley-Queisser Limit, TANSTAAFLhttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#renewable-energy
❝Rent seeking (or rent-seeking) is an economic concept that occurs when an entity seeks to gain added wealth without any reciprocal contribution of productivity. Typically, it revolves around government-funded social services and social service programs. The concept of rent seeking was established in 1967 and popularized in 1974. It is based on an economic definition of “rent” defined as economic wealth obtained through shrewd or potentially manipulative use of resources.❞➢ Rent Seeking from Investopedia
- the act or process of using one’s assets and resources to increase one’s share of existing wealth without creating new wealth.
- (specifically) the act or process of exploiting the political process or manipulating the economic environment to increase one’s revenue or profits: Rent-seeking by lobbyists succeeded in obtaining favorable tariff treatment for the company’s exports
✧❝The corrupt politicians utilize their bureaucratic power to engage in rent-seeking activities. In order to gain certain benefits, the rent-seekers may bribe politicians. However, G. Tullock determined that there is a significant difference between the cost of rent-seeking (bribery) and the gains from this practice. This paradox is called the Tullock Paradox. The Tullock Paradox states that rent-seekers generally obtain large financial and economic gains at an enormously small cost. This cost-benefit discrepancy stems from several possible explanations:
- In democratic states, there is somewhat more transparency for voters to monitor the behavior of the politicians. Therefore, if a politician is corrupt and takes a bribe, it may be discovered, and voters can penalize the corrupt politicians by not reelecting them, or he may be criminally charged.
- Another force that determines the costs for rent-seekers is whether there is competition among politicians. If there are different politicians that can ensure the delivery of certain benefits to rent-seekers, then the competing politicians will push down the cost of rent-seeking.❞➢ Rent-seeking from Corporate Financial Institute See also
corporatism, economics, financialization, late-stage capitalism, politics https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#rent-seeking https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#tullock
❝res ipsa loquitur❞❝(rayz ip-sah loh-quit-her) n. Latin for "the thing speaks for itself," a doctrine of law that one is presumed to be negligent if he/she/it had exclusive control of whatever caused the injury even though there is no specific evidence of an act of negligence, and without negligence the accident would not have happened. Examples: a) a load of bricks on the roof of a building being constructed by Highrise Construction Co. falls and injures Paul Pedestrian below, and Highrise is liable for Pedestrian's injury even though no one saw the load fall. b) While under anesthetic, Isabel Patient's nerve in her arm is damaged although it was not part of the surgical procedure, and she is unaware of which of a dozen medical people in the room caused the damage. Under res ipsa loquitur all those connected with the operation are liable for negligence. Lawyers often shorten the doctrine to "res ips," and find it a handy shorthand for a complex doctrine.❞https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#res-ipsa-loquitur
respectability politicsMoral authority deriving from clearly stated principles. As dozens of televangelists, hundreds of politicos, and the Cosby case show, if you are going to talk the talk you’d better walk the walk first. Manifest it before you talk about it. Maybe even then you shouldn't talk about it. Just let your actions speak for you.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#respectability-politics
❝the policy of a state intent on regaining areas of its original territory that have been lost to other states as a result of war, a treaty signed under duress, etc.❞https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#revanche
Revised Adjusted GNP ChangeChange in GDP - (annual inflation rate + (3x government spending)) Annual change in GDP over the previous year (expressed as a percentage)
minus the sum of the annual inflation rate (expressed as a percentage)
and three times total government spending (as a percentage of the economy). This approximate figure is more accurate than most of the economic measures tossed around to distract the public. Remember than economics measures the flow of value, not currency or stock indexes or employment numbers. If the rate of return is less than the costs, you have lost value. Because most people focus on currency rather than value, this usually goes unnoticed. It's not enough to grow the gross domestic product, inflation and government spending must also be reduced.See also
revolutionSeizure of power outside of established norms. When done through force, it's political. Because there are no restraints following a political revolution, a counter revolution will likely follow. There is no reason why the original revolutionaries will end up running the new society.❝A political revolution, in the Trotskyist theory, is an upheaval in which the government is replaced, or the form of government altered, but in which property relations are predominantly left intact. The revolutions in France in 1830 and 1848 are often cited as political revolutions. Political revolutions are contrasted with social revolutions in which old property relations are overturned.❞
✧❝The issue is never the issue. The issue is always the revolution.❞— a 1960s SDS radical as quoted by David Horowitz
✧❝A revolution constitutes a challenge to the established political order and the eventual establishment of a new order radically different from the preceding one. The great revolutions of European history, especially the Glorious (English), French, and Russian revolutions, changed not only the system of government but also the economic system, the social structure, and the cultural values of those societies. Historically, the concept of revolution was seen as a very destructive force, from ancient Greece to the European Middle Ages. The ancient Greeks saw revolution as a possibility only after the decay of the fundamental moral and religious tenets of society.
Only after the emergence of secular humanism during the Renaissance did this concept of revolution, as a cause of the desecration of society, change to embrace a more modern perspective. The 16th-century Italian writer Niccolò Machiavelli recognized the importance of creating a state that could endure the threat of revolution; but, at the same time, his detailed analysis of power led to a new belief in the necessity of changes in the structure of government on certain occasions.❞https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#revolution
rhetoricIn modern politics, the focused persuasion with elements of cadance, passional resonance and usually a call to a specific action. The desired outcome is defined in terms of how it might make people feel rather than measurable effectiveness.
- (in writing or speech) the undue use of exaggeration or display; bombast.
- the art or science of all specialized literary uses of language in prose or verse, including the figures of speech.
- the study of the effective use of language.
- the ability to use language effectively.
- the art of prose in general as opposed to verse.
- the art of making persuasive speeches; oratory.
- (in classical oratory) the art of influencing the thought and conduct of an audience.
- (in older use) a work on rhetoric➢ www.dictionary.com/browse/rhetoric?s=t?s=t Research inspired by an entry at Chas Clifton's
Letter from Hardscrabble Creek See also
logos, pathos, lexicon, en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modes_of_persuasionhttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#rhetoric
right versus power“Right” is distinct from “power.” Rights are freedoms shared by everyone, but only governments and government agents have powers above rights to enforce the law. Hopefully strictly limited and used only to defend rights.❝I don't care who or if anyone marries. But that doesn't give them power over my choice of pronouns. Two completely different things conflated by spoiled people who can't understand that rights aren't about dictating the actions of others. Rights always, always come with responsibility for the consequences of your own actions. Rights aren't about control. Rights are about liberty for yourself and others.❞The difference been deliberately confused in the best discordian methods. Americans like our rights and believe that rights should be defended and protected. So when we hear about the “police right to arrest” our brains get confuzzled and we accept what we would naturally reject. “Power” almost always carries the implication of force.See also
law, liberty, mala in se, mala prohibitahttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#right-power
riparian water rights❝Riparian water rights (or simply riparian rights) is a system for allocating water among those who possess land along its path. It has its origins in English common law. Riparian water rights exist in many jurisdictions with a common law heritage, such as Canada, Australia, and states in the eastern United States. Common land ownership can be organized into a partition unit, a corporation consisting of the landowners on the shore that formally owns the water area and determines its use.❞
✧❝Riparian areas are lands that occur along watercourses and water bodies. Typical examples include flood plains and streambanks. They are distinctly different from surrounding lands because of unique soil and vegetation characteristics that are strongly influenced by the presence of water.❞➢ Riparian Areas Environmental Uniqueness, Functions, and Values
from USDA Natural Resources Conservation Servicehttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#riparian
risqué❝daringly close to indelicacy or impropriety; off-color:❞For my archived images, strong implication of nudity without definite sexual content or humorous elements. The subject may be partially nude, but there are no direct views of genitalia, bottom or female nipples. Hints of fur or a lady's areola might be visible. Genitalia, bottom, and female areola may be seen through transparent or translucent clothing but no overt sexuality.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#risque
Robot, thePassive state where learned scripts and behavioral maps govern conduct and activity. Most people hide deep inside and let the Robot go through life for them. Bringing someone out of this state can be a challenge. It usually takes an out of the ordinary peak experience with enough “oomph” to upset the Robot’s programing.See also
behavior maps, See the Robot, intelligence, rule sethttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#robot
romantic attraction❝Romantic attraction feels magnetic. You can be in a crowded room, on a crowded elevator, walking down a busy street, or even on an Internet social networking site where visitors post actual photos of themselves. Wherever you are, there are a lot of people all around, but there is one person that you see, talk to, pass by, stand near, or nearly bump into that you feel drawn to; that makes you do a double take as you feel your heart pounding a little harder.❞➢ What Causes Romantic Attraction? from PairedLife See also
aesthetic attraction, crush, sensual attraction, sexual attraction, squishhttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#romantic-attraction
roux❝Roux is made by cooking equal parts flour and fat together until the raw flavor of the flour cooks out and the roux has achieved the desired color. Butter is the most commonly used fat, but you can also make roux with oil, bacon grease, or other rendered fats. There are four varieties of roux: white, blond, brown, and dark brown. The different colors are a result of how long the roux is cooked; white is cooked for the shortest time, while dark brown cooks the longest. White and blond roux are the most common, used to thicken sauces, soups, and chowders. Brown and dark brown roux have more flavor, but less thickening power than white or blond roux. Dark roux are primarily used in Cajun and Creole dishes, most notably gumbo and jambalaya. If you're cooking and storing a batch of roux for future use, use clarified butter as it will harden when refrigerated, trapping the flour in suspension. This suspension helps to prevent lumps when the roux is whisked into a sauce or soup. Having a well-made roux on hand will make it easy to use this marvelous thickener in everyday cooking.❞➢ How to Make Roux and Use It to Thicken Soups and Sauces
from allrecipiesSome of the best sausage & shrimp gumbo I ever ate used a roux made from one cup of peanut oil and eight tablespoons of whole wheat flour.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#roux
rule setRule sets are behavior maps given for a specific situation. Rule sets aren't the only way or the best way. Rules are either starting points or shortcuts for starting quickly. Rule sets are never the final authority. Rule sets should be reviewed and revamped from time to time.See also
creative destruction, intelligence, the Robot, rules for manipulation,https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#rule-set
- ❝It doesn’t matter what’s true, it’s what you can get people to believe.❞
- ❝If you control the information flow, you control what people believe.❞
- ❝If your information manipulates emotions to make people believe they are good and virtuous for believing what you want, no facts or reasoning will undo those beliefs.❞Credit the first two to Reiner Fuellmich in Reiner Fuellmich speaks with lawyer from India about Covid rates, deaths, and the fight for Ivermectin. Credit the third to Francis W. Porretto in Collection of Covid Info.https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#manipulation
- ❝Power is not only what you have, but what the enemy thinks you have.❞“Power is derived from 2 main sources – money and people. “Have-Nots” must build power from flesh and blood.”
- ❝Never go outside the expertise of your people.❞“The result is confusion, fear, and retreat.”
- ❝Whenever possible, go outside the expertise of the enemy.❞“Here you want to cause confusion, fear, and retreat.”
- ❝Make the enemy live up to its own book of rules.❞“You can kill them with this, for they can no more obey their own rules than the Christian church can live up to Christianity.”
- ❝Ridicule is man’s most potent weapon.❞“It is almost impossible to counterattack ridicule. Also it infuriates the opposition, who then react to your advantage.”
- ❝A good tactic is one your people enjoy.❞“If your people are not having a ball doing it, there is something very wrong with the tactic.”
- ❝A tactic that drags on too long becomes a drag.❞“Man can sustain militant interest in any issue for only a limited time, after which it becomes a ritualistic commitment, like going to church on Sunday mornings. New issues and crises are always developing, and one's reaction becomes, "Well, my heart bleeds for those people and I'm all for the boycott, but after all there are other important things in life"—and there it goes.”
- ❝Keep the pressure on. Never let up.❞“Use different tactics and actions, and utilize all events of the period for your purpose.”
- ❝The threat is usually more terrifying than the thing itself.❞
- ❝The major premise for tactics is the development of operations that will maintain a constant pressure upon the opposition.❞“It is this unceasing pressure that results in the reactions from the opposition that are essential for the success of the campaign. It should be remembered not only that the action is in the reaction but that action is itself the consequence of reaction and of reaction to the reaction, ad infinitum. The pressure produces the reaction, and constant pressure sustains action.”
- ❝If you push a negative hard enough, it will push through and become a positive.❞“This is based on the principle that every positive has its negative. We have already seen the conversion of the negative into the positive, in Mahatma Gandhi's development of the tactic of passive resistance.”
- ❝The price of a successful attack is a constructive alternative.❞“You cannot risk being trapped by the enemy in his sudden agreement with your demand and saying 'You're right—we don't know what to do about this issue. Now you tell us.'”
- ❝Pick the target, freeze it, personalize it, and polarize it❞“The opposition must be singled out as the target and "frozen."…in a complex, interrelated, urban society, it becomes increasingly difficult to single out who is to blame for any particular evil. There is a constant…passing of the buck. …Obviously there is no point to tactics unless one has a target upon which to center the attacks… If an organization permits responsibility to be diffused and distributed in a number of areas, attack becomes impossible.”— adaped from Rules for Radicals:
A Pragmatic Primer for Realistic Radicals
by Saul D. AlinskySee also
behavior maps, politics, rule sethttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#radicals
Rules of ThreeGods there are a bunch. I keep collecting them and they keep proving useful.
- Ro3 № 1 - Start by listening. Before you say anything, listen again. Just to make sure you understand, listen some more. - Quick notes to a new seeker
- Ro3 № 2 - Ask questions. Question the answers. Question your questions. - Quick notes to a new seeker
- Ro3 № 3 - Say only one thing for every three things they say. - Wisdom and the Three Percent, active listening
- Ro3 № 4 - Let people discover truth before you speak. Make sure the truth is necessary before you speak. Judge if the listener is worthy of truth before you speak.
- Ro3 № 5 - If you care for the other person, if you respect them, if you share deep passions with them, then the sex makes all that better. - Collecting pelts
- Ro3 № 6 - If you find information on the internet, verify it with three offline, reputable, and independent sources and experiment BEFORE you depend on it.
- Ro3 № 7 - To ease your pain and shame, share it separately with three people you trust to tell you truth. Then listen hard, because you will learn things you did not know.
- Ro3 № 8 - Test it thrice.
- Ro3 № 9 - Honor expects three warnings before you act.
- Ro3 № 10 - Words matter. Actions matter more. Intentions don’t. - Would you know?
- Ro3 № 11 - Know what you can do. Know what you're willing to do. Know the price you're willing to pay.
- Ro3 № 12 - What you think you know is not what you need to know. Where you are is not where you need to be. Who you believe you are is not who you were meant to be. - Systematically
- Ro3 № 13 - Books aren't destinations, they're signposts. Like it or not, you still make the journey yourself. You can always go further than the book can carry you.- Quick notes to a new seeker
- Ro3 № 14 - At it's simplest, Shiva is not Loki who is not Brighid. Do not treat each of them the same. Do not expect the same from each of them. Respect them on their terms and make that respect a part of your life. - Really real pagan
- Ro3 № 15 - Don’t hold someone responsible unless they were present, of age, and participating. Remember the Practical Grudge Limit.
- Ro3 № 15a - I'm not responsible for things that happened before I was born. I'm not responsible for things that happened before I was legally of age. I'm not responsible if I didn't do it.
- Ro3 № 16 - Initiate — Celebrate — Operate
- Ro3 № 17 - It’s not a real party unless it lasts three days.
- Ro3 № 18 - Pay attention to other people. Find out what's important to them. Make it important to you. - Are you paying attention?
- Ro3 № 19 - Give her at least two orgasms for every one of mine.
- Ro3 № 20 - Start cunnilingus with three to the left, two to the right, one to the left, three to the right, two to the left, and then one to the right.
- Ro3 № 21You don’t have time or energy to do anything else.❝Keep what works. Fix what’s broke. Ditch the rest.❞➢ The Eclectic Redes by Sunfell
- Ro3 № 22 - The honor is in giving truth when needed, helping when you can, and leaving the World a little better than how you found it. - It's only shame if I accept the premise.
- Ro3 № 23 - Always do what you promised. Try to deliver more than you promised. Make it better today. Keep polishing. - Quick notes to a new seeker
- Ro3 № 24 - I honor truth, liberty, and the rule of law in that order. - Truth, liberty and the rule of law
- Ro3 № 25❝Do unto others as you would have them do unto you. Do for yourself at least as much as you do for others. Don't do for others what they can do for themselves.❞
- Ro3 № 26❝Hope for the best, prepare for the worst and meanwhile, do everything you can to make things better.❞
- Ro3 № 27 - A living faith draws from three sources. There's what others have done before you. There's who you are and what you've done. And finally there's the link you make to the Divine. This dynamic tension shapes your faith. - Faith Triad
- Ro3 № 28 - There are three types of history. There's the Official History™, there's the stories that people tell, and there's what really happened. - Synchronicity, coincidence, perception, and perspective
- Ro3 № 29❝ Give them the third best to go on with; the second best comes too late, the best never comes.❞— Robert Watson-Watt
- Ro3 № 30❝The best way to keep a secret? Keep it to yourself. Second best? Tell one other person - if you must. There is no third best.❞➢ NCIS, Gibbs' rules, Gibbs's Rules #4
- Ro3 № 31 - Choose your own words and actions despite the threat of punishment. Accept responsibility for your choices. Trust that others will make their choices without your coercion.
- three marks of an adult human
- Ro3 № 32 - Ninety-seven percent of the time, there is no practical magickal solution. Three percent of the time, well, three is a magick number and that is when I use magick. - three percent, Wisdom and the Three Percent
- Ro3 № 33 - Don't mention a negative without talking about three positives. - Obsessed with Christians
- Ro3 № 34Probably related/derived from the old Japanese proverb Nana korobi, ya oki which translates as “Fall down seven times, stand up eight.”❝Fall down twice, get up three times.❞
- Ro3 № 35Works best for democracies, but not a bad start for individuals.❝Never fight unless you have to. Never fight alone. And never fight for long.❞— Fox Conner
- Ro3 № 36 - Sometimes, take it apart, forget what you think you know and start again. — Law of Creative Destruction
- Ro3 № 37 - There are three “carved-in-stone” sex rules that easily solve 97% of sex problems in America today. Consenting adults only. If you promised to be someone else’s “one and only,” you’re off limits. Regret does not equal rape.
- Ro3 № 38 - Except for immediate kith & kin, no person gets an entry in my address book unless I have met with them three times, dealt with them three times, or they have at least three significant works (books, movies, songs, quotes) that have KEPT my attention.
- Ro3 № 39❝ Does this action attempt to deceive anyone or allow anyone to be deceived? Does this action gain or allow the gain of privilege or advantage to which I or someone else would not otherwise be entitled? Would I be dissatisfied by the outcome if I were on the receiving end of this action?❞— Three Rules to Live By from United States Military Academy at West Point
- Ro3 № 40❝Know Thyself. Nothing to Excess. Surety Brings Ruin.❞— carved into the Temple of Delphi. See also Golden Mean (philosophy)
- Ro3 № 41❝Never apologize. Rally friends. Punch back harder❞—Glenn H. Reynolds, How to beat the woke: Never apologize, rally friends and punch back harder.
- Ro3 № 42 - Without fail, every single time I saw anyone claiming to do “Divine Work” while speaking the “Words of the Divine” and claiming “Divinely-sanctioned” authority over others, all three were false claims. More times than not, the first two "justified" the third.
- Ro3 № 43 - Science shows what can be observed, predicted and verified.
- Ro3 № 44 - If it were totally up to me (which is probably why it isn't), I would insist that every questionable book be read AND discussed with two other books with contrasting views. Preferably conflicting views. I have this crazy idea that the education is not about memorizing facts, but teaching people to question and come up with their own conclusions that work.
- Ro3 № 45 - Here is truth, simple and direct. I gift it to you without reservations and without preconditions.
As long as you grasp the illusion that the system protects and defends you, you won't believe me.
When you let go of that illusion, you won't need me.
When you choose your own liberty, you'll know what to do.
This is truth. It is up to you, not me.
- Ro3 № 46 - Do not assume perspective, circumstances, or values.
- Ro3 № 47 - Life never works long with excuses. Use what you have, adapt to circumstances, and keep moving forward.See also
- behavior maps,
- rule sethttps://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#ro3
Russell’s teapot❝Russell’s teapot is an analogy, formulated by the philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872–1970), to illustrate that the philosophic burden of proof lies upon a person making unfalsifiable claims, rather than shifting the burden of disproof to others. Russell specifically applied his analogy in the context of religion. He wrote that if he were to assert, without offering proof, that a teapot, too small to be seen by telescopes, orbits the Sun somewhere in space between the Earth and Mars, he could not expect anyone to believe him solely because his assertion could not be proven wrong.❞➢ Russell’s Teapot from The Spiritual Life
✧❝British mathematician, philosopher, and atheist Bertrand Russell proposed his teapot analogy as a way of explaining where the burden of proof lies, particularly in debates about religion. Russell’s teapot is also known as the celestial teapot or the cosmic teapot. In the teapot analogy, Russell asks to us to imagine a man claiming that there is a teapot orbiting the sun between Earth and Mars. The teapot is too small for us to see, and, since we can’t journey out into space (Russell wrote this in the 1950s), there’s no way to show that the teapot isn’t actually there. “Ah,” says Russell’s hypothetical man, “since you can’t prove the teapot isn’t there, you must assume that it is there.” Of course, it’s patently ridiculous to claim that that we must believe in a teapot orbiting the sun simply because we have no means to prove it isn’t there. The burden of proof, Russell argues, is on the person claiming the teapot is there, since the default assumption is that no such teapot exists; the person claiming the existence of the teapot needs to provide positive evidence for us to believe his claim. He can’t just insist that we accept his belief as the default position. Using the teapot analogy, Russell claimed that many religious people act as though belief in God should be the default assumption and that the burden of proof is on the atheist to prove that God does not exist. Russell rejected theism and claimed that atheism should be the natural starting point for reasoning out the existence of God, since God cannot be empirically verified (i.e., we cannot observe or touch God).❞➢ What is Russell’s teapot? from Got Questions
✧❝Many orthodox people speak as though it were the business of sceptics to disprove received dogmas rather than of dogmatists to prove them. This is, of course, a mistake. If I were to suggest that between the Earth and Mars there is a china teapot revolving about the sun in an elliptical orbit, nobody would be able to disprove my assertion provided I were careful to add that the teapot is too small to be revealed even by our most powerful telescopes. But if I were to go on to say that, since my assertion cannot be disproved, it is intolerable presumption on the part of human reason to doubt it, I should rightly be thought to be talking nonsense. If, however, the existence of such a teapot were affirmed in ancient books, taught as the sacred truth every Sunday, and instilled into the minds of children at school, hesitation to believe in its existence would become a mark of eccentricity and entitle the doubter to the attentions of the psychiatrist in an enlightened age or of the Inquisitor in an earlier time.❞— Bertrand Russell, “Is There a God?” (unpublished) 1952https://lexicon.neowayland.com/rr/#teapot